THE NOBEL PRIZE
On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace - the Nobel Prizes.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the peace prize, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation.
To get the Nobel prize first nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize. The Committee makes a report of the advice given by experts in the relevant fields. The report and a list of the candidates are given to the prize-awarding institutions. Then the institutions choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award.
The prize is in a form of a medal or diploma or money.
Four people have received two Nobel Prizes.
Marie Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for her work on radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium, making her the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences.
Linus Pauling won the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances.
Pauling also won the Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism against nuclear weapons, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes.
John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity.
Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.
Two organizations have received the Peace Prize multiple times.
The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981
For the last part, it is good to know about the word “Laureates” that is used for the people who are awarded. The word "Laureate" refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. In Greek mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. A laurel wreath is a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel. In Ancient Greece, laurel wreaths were awarded to victors as a sign of honor - both in athletic competitions and in poetic meets.