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About a and an


A Historic Topic - A vs. An

Writers sometimes confuse the use of the articles a and an. We were all taught that a precedes a word starting with a consonant and that an precedes a word starting with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y).

Here’s the secret to making the rule work: The rule applies to the sound of the letter beginning the word, not just the letter itself. The way we say the word will determine whether or not we use a or an. If the word begins with a vowel sound, you must use an. If it begins with a consonant sound, you must use a.

For example, the word hour begins with the consonant h. But the h is silent, so the word has a vowel sound. Hence:

an hour

The rule works the other way as well. Take the word university. It begins with the vowel u. But the u is pronounced as if it begins with the consonant y. Hence:

a university

But consider the word umbrella, also starting with u. It starts with the vowel sound uh. Hence:

an umbrella

Another vowel with a consonant sound is o. When spoken, the letter can sound as if it begins with the consonant w. Thus, we use the a:

a one-room apartment a once-famous actor


Articles with Words Beginning with ‘h,’ a or an

The consonant giving us the most trouble is probably h. When the h begins a word and the first syllable is strongly pronounced, you should use a.

a history of Europe (accent falls on his) a hero (accent falls on he)

But when the beginning h is weakly pronounced (historic, habitual), you may use an, especially in British English.

an historic occasion (hisTORic) an habitual offender (haBITual)

But these usages are becoming increasingly old-fashioned, so you may also use a.

a historic occasion a habitual offender


Articles with Acronyms, a or an

Finally, the rule applies to acronyms as well. If you pronounce a letter as a letter and it begins with a vowel sound, you should precede it with an. The consonants with vowel sounds include f, h, l, m, n, r, s, and x.

He flew in an SST. He fired an M-1. He attended an FDA hearing.

By the same token, if a vowel letter, with a consonant sound, is pronounced as a letter, you should use a.

He made a U-turn.

Present Continuous


Am/is/are+ -ing is the present continuous


Study this example situation:

Sarah is in her car. She is on her way to work.She is driving to work.

(This means: she is driving now, at the time of speaking.The action is not finished.)

They are playing football now.

She is drinking coffee.

He is going to the library.


(I am doing something= I'm in the middle of doing it; I've started doing it and I haven't finished: = Please don't make so much noise. I'm trying t o work. (not I try))


'Where's Mark?' 'He's having a shower.' (not He has a shower)

Let's go out now. lt isn't raining any more. (not lt doesn't rain)

(at a party) Hi, jane. Are you enjoying the party? (not Do you enjoy)

What's all that noise? What's going on? (=What's happening?)


Sometimes the action is not happening at the time of speaking.


For example: Steve is talking to a friend on the phone. He says:

(I’m reading a realy good book at the moment.it’s about a man who…)

(He is not reading the book at the time of speaking.He means that he has started it, but has not finished it yet.He is in the middle of reading it.)


You can use the present continuous with today I this week I this year etc. (periods around now)


A: You're working hard today. (not You work hard today)

B: Yes, I have a lot to do.

C: The company I work for isn't doing so well this year.


We use the present continuous when we talk about changes happening around now, especially with these verbs:


get, change, become, increase, rise, fall, grow, improve, begin, start,

Is your English getting better? (not Does your English get better)

The population of the world is increasing very fast. (not increases)

At first I didn't like my job, but I'm beginning to enj oy it now. (not I begin)


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